# Help:Nuclide Datasheets++

Nuclide Datasheets++ is a tool to display and compare nuclear data.

- Nuclear data from different databases (JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, 8th TORI, Nubase 2012, etc.) can be compared easily in both graphical and tabular form. The data in the tables can be rearranged in ascending / descending order.

- The displayed nuclear data is sub-divided into Reference Data, Radiations (shown), Derived Data, Cross-Sections, etc.

- All radiations (alpha, beta, gamma, etc.) from a particular radionuclide can be seen in a single graph and table, colour coded based on the type of radiation. Using filters, data for a single type of radiation (e.g. gammas) can be shown in the graphs/tables.

Additional data provided includes:

- Photon mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

- Build-up factors and attenuation coefficients for various shield materials.

- Fission yield data from the main international datafiles.

- Integral cross section data and averaged neutron cross-sections from international datafiles (JEFF, ENDF, JENDL, BROND, and CENDL).

- Effective dose coefficients for ingestion and inhalation, e(50), have been taken from the International Commission for Radiological Protection compilation.

- A1 and A2 activity and activity exemption limits for packaging and transportation.

- Properties of the elements including densities, melting points, boiling points, etc.

- Tables of physical constants, conversion factors and radiological limits.

## Contents |

## Reference Data

The basic nuclear data in Nucleonica is contained within the DataSheets shown. The active tab **Reference Data** shows the basic reference data for nuclide Co-60. Additional tabs provide access to Options, Radiations, Description, Derived Data, and Cross Section data.

The Reference Data includes:

- density,

- effective dose coefficient for inhalation and ingestion
*e*(50),

- average decay energies for alpha, electron and photon,

- types of decay, branching ratio, decay energy, and daughter nuclides,

- information on possible parents and their decay modes

For further information on references see Nucleonica Database

### Did You Know

- Nucleonica contains data from international datafiles such as JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, 8th Table of Isotopes, ICRP 68 & 72, etc.

- There are currently more than 3100 nuclide ground states and over 700 isomers in the Nucleonica database.

- The database contains 85899 gamma and X-rays (ENDF/B-VII.1) from approximately 1300 nuclides.

## Radiations

In the radioactive decay process, a variety of particles and/or photons can be emitted including alpha particles, electrons, gamma and X-ray photons. In the **Radiations** tab, a list of the energies and emission probabilities of the emitted particles/photons is given in both tabular and graphical forms. The underlying data is from the JEFF3.1 datafile or the 8th Table of Isotopes.

The image shows the particle and photon energies and emission probabilities for Am-241. By default, the entries in the table are by decreasing emission probability for all types of particle / photon. Through the use of the check buttons, the user can easily filter out a single type of radiation e.g. gamma or alpha, etc.

Further information can be obtained by activation the Show details button. In additon to uncertainties in the energies and emission probabilities, one can see the conversion coefficients for each gamma transition energy. Excited states can de-excite either through gamma emission or alternatively through the emission of so-called conversion electrons. This conversion coefficient is essentially the ratio of electrons to gamma photons emitted. The de-excitation can lead to the emission of K, L, M, etc. atomic electrons given by the coefficients , , , etc. The sum of all these coefficients is denoted by .

For more information see internal conversion.

## Description

The **Description** tab gives literature references for the basic reference data. This data originates from the JEFF3.1 nuclear datafile with some corrections. This image shown contains the information on Co-60 from the JEFF-3.1 Radioactive Decay Data File which was compiled at the NEA Data Bank - Feb. 2005. This datafile has been convertted into a relational database for use in Nucleonica. References to the original scientific papers are given where available.

## Derived Data

The **Derived Data** tab shows data derived from the basic data and includes:

- Basic: half-life, decay constant, average or mean lifetime, the specific activity;

- Heat Generation: the isotopic power for α, α+β, α+β+γ (heat generation);

- Neutron Emission: spontaneous fission rate, neutrons per fission, specific fission neutron yield;

- Gamma Emission: Air kerma, exposure and ambient dose rate constants; for more information see Dose rate constants

- Radiotoxicity: Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for ingestion and inhalation (radiotoxicities), derived air and water concentrations;

- Transport & Packaging: the A1 and A2 activity and activity exemption limits for packaging and transportation.

## Cross Sections

The **Cross Sections** tab gives the averaged cross section data based on JEF Report 14 (Table of Simple Integral Neutron Cross Section Data from JEF-2-2, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2, BROND-2, and CENDL-2).

The data include the averaged cross sections corresponding to the following energies:

- 2200 m/s,

- Maxwell average,

- resonance integral,

- 14 MeV, and

- fission spectrum average

for a range of important nuclear reactions including:

- (n,gamma)

- (n,fission)

- (n,2n), (n,3n)

- (elastic)

- (inelastic)

- (total)

and from a variety of databases. Results for Cl-35 are shown below. Point-wise (shown on the right), average (multigroup), and (x,xn) cross sections as a function of energy are shown in graphical form (where available).

**Reference**

JEF Report 14 Table of Simple Integral Neutron Cross Section Data from JEF-2-2, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2, BROND-2, and CENDL-2.

## Use of Concise Notation for Data Uncertainties

The use of the concise notation is best demonstrated with an example.

Research papers often publish half-lives in so-called 'non-concise' form. As an example, the half-life of the alpha emitter Gd-148 has been measured to be T_{1/2}= 70.9 ± 1.0y. When this information is published in, for example, ENSDF, NDS etc. a more concise notation is used as shown in the diagram below for Gd-148 i.e. T_{1/2}(y) = 70.9 *10* where it understood that the number in italics is the numerical value of the standard uncertainty referred to the corresponding last digits of the quoted result.

As another example, the half-life of Po-209 is given in the original scientific paper as as T_{1/2}(y) = (125.2 ± 3.3) a.

In Nucleonica's Nuclide Datasheets, however, the half life is given as T_{1/2}(y) = 125.2 (33) a. Notice the notation follows that of NIST which is slightly different from the ENSDF shown above (NIST has the uncertainty in brackets, non-italic e.g. (33); ENSDF has the uncertainty in italic withour brackets e.g. *33*).

Further examples of uncertainties notations are shown below.

For further information see the articles below.

Reference

Standard Uncertainty and Relative Standard Uncertainty

ENSDF manuel; Note on uncertainties is on page 104